Another life:


factories, urbanization, poverty, trains and pollution 


The Industrial Revolution turned human life completely upside down. Factories were started everywhere, first in England and later in the US and elsewhere in the world, especially in Europe. The extraction of raw materials and the production of goods increased enormously. Coal production in England. for example, it grew from about three million tons around 1700 to ten million tons at the end of the century.

But not everyone benefited from this strong production growth. Due to urbanization, the cities grew at lightning speed. Many people moved from the countryside to the city, where they often came to live close to the factory. This created a poor urban working class, especially in the nineteenth century. Low wages, poor working conditions (working days from16 hours) and child labor created the so-called "social problem": the workers' question that revolved around the issue of how to address and resolve the poor living and working conditions of workers and their families.

In addition, the first steam trains and steam ships appeared in the 1830s and 1840s. The English steamship the SS Archimedes was the first steamboat with a screw propeller (paddle steamers had already existed before) and the invention of the steam turbine - the lava turbine - in 1883 gave a significant boost to overseas shipping.

In the short term, Industrialization led to considerable environmental pollution and the "dictatorship of the clock" (due to factory times and train times). A new attitude to life, the romantic 19th century, also emerged, which also had a great impact in art sectors such as literature and painting, in which people longed back to the peaceful, quiet and clean country life. 

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